**Maxwell’s equations** are:

(SI units) |

, |

or, in macroscopic form: |

, |

In lih materials with
we have: |

, |

**The method of images**

Consider a charge q at z = d on the z - axis.

Assume the z = 0 plane is a grounded conducting plane. Then placing an image
charge

q’ = -q at d’ = -d on the z-axis makes the z = 0 plane an equipotential with Φ
= 0.

The electrostatic field and potential above the plane are the same as the
field and potential due to the charge and its image charge.

**AC circuits**

Assume V(t), I(t), emf(t) are all proportional to exp(iωt). Assume idealized circuit elements. Define the impedance Z = V/I. Then

**Kirchhoff’s rules** for filamentary circuits: For each loop ∑_{n}V_{n}
= 0 for each
node ∑_{n}I_{n} =0.

Any two-terminal network of passive elements is equivalent
to an effective impedance Z_{eff
}Thévenin equivalent circuits: Any two terminal
network can be replaced by a generator emf_{eff}
in series with an impedance Z_{eff}.

**Example Problems: (Solutions)**

**Problem 1:**

**Problem 2:**

**Problem 3:**

**Problem 4:**

**Problem 5:**

**Problem 6:**

**Problem 7:**

**Problem 10:**