### Problem 1: (A)

Famous experiments

Oil-drop experiment

### Problem 2: (E)

Famous experiments

Rayleigh scattering is the elastic scattering of
electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the
radiation. Example: light scattering off individual atoms or molecules. Rayleigh scattering is a function of the electric polarizibility of the
particles.

Raman scattering
is the inelastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by particles much
smaller than the wavelength of the radiation

### Problem 3: (C)

Famous experiments, frame transformation

Stern-Gerlach experiment

### Problem 4: (E)

Propagation of uncorrelated errors

P = ε^{2}/R, dP/P = 2dε/R - dr/R, ΔP = P ((4dε/R)^{2}
+ (dr/R)^{2})^{1/2}.

The uncertainties are added quaratically.

ΔP = uncertainty in P

### Problem 5: (E)

Properties of diodes

### Problem 6: (E)

Read a log-log scale

gain G = kω^{-2}, log(G) = log(k) - 2log(ω).

The slope on the log-log plot in the region ω > 2*10^{5} is -2.

### Problem 7: (C)

Counting statistics

The Gaussian distribution: The standard deviation of the Gaussian
distribution is given by σ = N_{avg}^{1/2}.
The standard deviation σ is a measure of
the width of the distribution. Approximately 1/3 of the counts will lie outside
the interval N_{avg} - σ to N_{avg}
+ σ.

### Problem 8: (C)

Cross section σ

small beam, big target: (# of particles scattered per second

= [(# of beam particles)/s] * [(# of target particles)/area ] * σ

where

(# of target particles)/area = number per unit volume * thickness).

Also: only one answer is dimensionless.

### Problem 9: (D)

Attenuation

Absorption of radiation is a random process. When
a photon travels through a material, we cannot predict exactly how far it will
penetrate and at which depth it will be absorbed, we can only predict the
probability that the photon will travel through a certain distance Δx of the material.

I(z) = I_{0}exp(-kz), I(3d) = I_{0}exp(-3kd)
= I_{0}exp(-kd)^{3} = (1/2)^{3} I_{0} =
(1/8)I_{0}.

### Problem 10: (B)

Dead time

If R is the rate of particles reaching the detector, r is the measured
count rate, and T is the dead time of the detector then r = R/(1 + RT).

Dead time